Try to answer the following questions:

1. Do you think the game should have been released at all?
2. Should the scene in the airport have been included?
3. Did the game’s creators take reasonable steps to protect people from the scene?
4. Do you have more sympathy for the opinions expressed by those who were offended, or by those who supported the scene’s inclusion?

Preamble

To me, computer games are an expressive medium through which a story can be told. Indeed for decades now it has been this aspect of games, the story, the plot, the world created for the player to discover, that has made them such a popular entertainment media across a wide demographic. Just as there are controvercial books and movies, there are controversial video games. They each as a public medium have their own laws, rules and restrictions to which they must conform, and boards which must approve them prior to their release to the general public.

Do you Think the  Game Should have been Released at all?

The wording of this question is interesting as it moves responsibility away from the developers and into the territory of Public Relations, Quality control, and approval boards ( The ESRB in this case, although many companies have their own bodies for governing such matters ). Seeing as the game has been released, and that it has an ESRB rating, I know that it has met the rules and regulations required for public use. Moreover if it was not released the time, work, and effort of Infinity Ward and it’s employees, the man hours and their wages, would have been wasted.

From a viewpoint of someone who would potentially be offended by the controversial “airport scene” there was an option to bypass such scenes, and still play the game. However the controversy is that these scenes were included in the first place. As I said earlier, a video game is a story-telling medium, if you don’t like a book, don’t read it, if you don;t like a game, don’t play it. There is no more reason for the game to have not been released than for Mein Kampf to never have been published, yes they are each controversial, but they are each media we have the right to choose whether or not we use them.

Should the scene in the airport have been included?

HAving not played the game, I am not aware of exactly how this scene integrates with the plot, but I would hope the game designers would not have simply included it to pad-out a cut-scene. Presumable it is a plot-device to help polarize the players world view through the game, or at least to motivate them through the next mission.

Did the game’s creators take reasonable steps to protect people from the scene?

firstly, the player has the choice to shoot into the crowd of civilians, so it is not necessarily an execution scene, and the game also offers the options to skip the entire scene altogether. These steps are should be adequate to protect those who would be offended or disturbed by the scene.

Do you have more sympathy for the opinions expressed by those who were offended, or by those who supported the scene’s inclusion?

Those who were offended were perhaps in too much of a rush to get into the game to pay attention to the options which, so perhaps the option could have been made more apparent to the player, other than that, I have no sympathy for those who made the choice to see the scene. Perhaps the point was to polarize the opinion of the player(s), but not to the degree apparent in the backlash from the games fan base.

Use your web-searching skills to find Club Penguin merchandise – what can you buy that relates to Club Penguin without visiting the Club Penguin website?

On Amazon.co.uk there are books, trading cards and tins, plushies, playsets, posters and other Club Penguin items.

Toywiz offers similar things as Amazon, and others such as ‘Puffles’, Treasure book coin co and mini figures.

### Activity 14

Look at the short section entitled ‘Study Respondents’ at the top right of page 85 of the McKinney and Whiteside paper. Then answer the following questions.

1. In which industry did the people who answered the survey work?
2. The article states that men outnumbered women almost nine to one. Assuming this applies to the people who responded to the survey, approximately how many of the survey respondents were women?
1. The people studies for the paper worked in the defense, financial, manufacturing, transportation, professional sports, and telecommunications industries industries.
2. Using the 192 returned correspondents from the defence industry as our base figure, we do the following:

We make the assumption that in every 10 respondents there will be 1 woman, so our group size is 10 and the fraction of this that are women is 1/10.

One tenth of $192 = \large{\dfrac{192}{10} = 19.2}$

Number of women $= \boldsymbol{\underline{\underline{19\,(\,2\,s.f\,)}}}$

### Activity 15

Turn back to page 84 of the article. Read the paragraph in the right-hand column that begins ‘Communication media can be categorized …’, and look at the diagram towards the top of the page.

1. What were the minimum and maximum overall scores on the richness scale that was used?
2. List the communication methods in order of their perceived richness, according to the survey results.
3. In Activity 13 you made a note of the order of four of these communication methods from the poll of TU100 students. Is this the same as for the survey reported in the journal paper? If not, why do you think this might be?
1. The minimum score was 20.28 for a letter, and the highest score was 30.65 for face-to-face communications.
2. The communications media in order of descending richness are as follows; Face-to-face, Video, Phone, e-mail, Letters and Fax.
3. The order in the poll is slightly different, with video conferencing appearing to have a higher overall score than face-to-face interactions, possibly due to the ability to overlay a video conference with rich media and being to simultaneously share hyperlinks and files whilst communicating over the internet.

Suppose you were a manager who employed several teleworkers who could only come into the office once a fortnight. For each of the requirements below, which communication medium would you choose: a videoconference, a phone call, an email, a letter or a face-to-face meeting?

• You need to tell an employee what their role will be in a project that is about to begin.
• You need to carry out a six-monthly career appraisal with an employee.
• You need to tell your best employee that they have been awarded a pay rise.

There are no ‘right answers’ here. Think about the advantages and disadvantages of each communication medium for each of the purposes listed, and form your own opinion. Then make your choices in the following series of polls, and see what other TU100 students selected: Which communication medium?

For the first, telling the employee what their role in a new project will be, I would choose an e-mail or a letter so that they have a definite list of terms and expectations to which they can repeatedly refer, and ask questions about anything prior to the project starting.

The six-monthly appraisal I would carry out face to face, these sorts of things are best dealt with in real time, face-to-face and one-to-one, allowing for a more dynamic back and forth between myself and the employee receiving his review.

To tell an employee that they have received a pay rise I would use a hand written letter, this makes the news a more personal and formal experience for the employee.

What do you understand by the analogy of selling pans to gold miners?

The analogy refers to the indirect profiteering from an economic sector undergoing a ‘boom’, ie instead of going mining themselves, the seller would supply the gold miners with all their supplies they need to go mining for gold, as this is a more stable source of income if not quite so profitable.

1. What is meant by the phrase ‘recorded usage share’?
2. Why might the figure for recorded usage share not be an accurate representation of the market share for a particular browser?
1. ‘Recorded usage share’ refers too the number of requests a page receives from a particular web browser.
2. The type of user, the way the browser works and the habits of the user are all contributing factors that can skew the information regarding recorded usage shares.

Calculate the duty cycle of a device that typically connects to a network and transmits for 20 ms in every 0.5 s. You may wish to use a calculator for this activity.

So we have the following figures:

1 cycle $= 0.5\, seconds$

Duty time per cycle $= 20\, ms = 0.020\, seconds$

So to work out 0.020 as a percentage of 0.5 :

Duty cycle $= \large{\dfrac{0.020}{0.5}\cdot 100\%}$

Duty cycle $= \boldsymbol{\underline{\underline{4\%}}}$

Can you relate Simon’s ‘economy of attention’ (introduced in Section 1.1) to the IGD plan?

The IGD plan and Simon’s economy of attention model relate like so; The IGD plan relates the interrelations between information we have about our goals and constraints with the information we have about our options. So the decision comes down to what information we pa attention to. This means that the alternative options in the IGD plan are the pieces of information competing for our attention.

Let’s return to the task of planning a holiday. Suppose you have identified a particular hotel on a website that contains travel information. You have also searched the Web for reviews of this hotel. Unfortunately you can find only two reviews: one that praises it and another that gives a damning verdict. The decision you need to make is whether to stay in this hotel. However, given the two reviews, there is another decision that must be made first: which source of information to rely on. Describe this decision problem in terms of the three components of the IGD plan:

## Information gathering for decision making (IGD) plan

In order to make a decision you need to collect information on:

1. What you want – what are your goals and constraints?
2. What your options are – what are the alternatives that you can choose from?
3. How the options relate to your goals and constraints – is each option good or bad from the point of view of your goals and constraints? How does it fare when compared to other options.

So in accordance with the IGD plan:

1. Goal: I want to find valid reviews of the hotel in question.
2. Options: I must trust one of the two reviews.
3. To be able to relate my goal and options I must review the reviews! I need to find out who wrote them, why and when. It may be orth seeing other reviews by the same two people to spot trends.